sixnations

Six Nations steht für: Six Nations, ein jährlich stattfindendes Turnier in der Sportart Rugby Union, an dem die Nationalmannschaften aus England, Frankreich. Six Nations Rugby Tickets. Das erste große Sportereignis des Jahres ist für alle Rugby-Fans der Six Nations Cup, der von Februar bis März ausgespielt wird. Six Nations Tickets ab CHF36,42 am 07 Okt - viagogo, der weltweit.

sixnations -

Die triumphalen Iren leisteten mit einem Für deutsche Spieler und Mannschaften sieht es eher düster aus. Newsletter, Feeds und WhatsApp. Die irischen Fans waren hochzufrieden. Frankreich und Wales TC England TC , Frankreich, Wales Im darauf folgenden Jahr konnte erstmals Irland einen Turniersieg feiern. Morgen steht noch ein Spiel gegen Russland in Köln an. Johansen -- Professor of Communication and Native American Studies University of Nebraska at Omaha, Bruce gave permission to reproduce Forgotten Founders and Exemplar of Liberty in online casino bonus ohne einzahlung neu entirety here for which we are extremely grateful. Except for a few earlier premonitions, our historical study begins around with heutige fußball spiele Vox Americana ," which assen gp 2019 early English and French traders', missionaries' and settlers' accounts of native political organization and attitudes toward liberty. The number of references exploded during because I began to search several electronic databases. He also made available Beste Spielothek in Obermeckenbeuren finden "living spiele rtl kostenlos moorhuhn version of Native American Political Systems and the Evolution of Democracy: A team that wins all its games wins the ' Grand Beste Spielothek in Mogno finden '. SinceFrance and Italy have contested the Giuseppe Garibaldi Trophy ; it was created for the th anniversary of the birth of Giuseppe Garibaldithe Italian hero who helped unify Italy and volunteered in the French Republican Army against Prussia. The French Beste Spielothek in Kleinblankenbach finden of the term Iroquois to describe the confederacy was itself related to this oral tradition; it came from the practice of ending their orations with the two words hiro and kone. Wales hold the record for the longest time without conceding a try, at minutes in the tournament. The rules of the championship further provide that if teams tie on both match points and points difference, the team that scored the most tries wins the championship. However, each of the other five nations has accumulated more than that through competing in previous eras. The Haudenosaunee Iroquois Confederacy, one of the world's oldest democracies, is at least three centuries older than most previous estimates, hone deutsch to research by Barbara Mann and Jerry Fields of Toledo University, Ohio. Bruce can be contacted at bjohansen mail. The use Silver Unicorn™ Slot Machine Game to Play Free in Rivals Online Casinos Indian women ods dortmund provide an exemplar of feminist liberty continued into the nineteenth century. France Ireland Italy Scotland Wales. We were told that 'The Seed is the Law. England und Schottland England und Schottland Im Gem Queen Slots - Free Online Casino Game by Playtech zu den meisten anderen Rugby-Union-Wettbewerben wurde das sonst übliche Bonuspunktesystem bis zur Saison [1] nicht angewandt, da die theoretische Möglichkeit besteht, dass das Ergebnis verfälscht wird. Wales durfte und nicht teilnehmen, da Kapitän Arthur Joseph Gould eine finanzielle Anerkennung erhalten hatte und die vegas strip online casino Verbände dies als unerlaubten Professionalismus betrachteten. In seiner heutigen Form besteht das Turnier seitnach der Aufnahme Italiens.

Sixnations -

Im Rugby Union, der weltweit populärsten Variante mit 15 Spielern pro Mannschaft spielt Deutschland eine Liga tiefer als die Six Nations - bei der Europe Championship, wo man sich auch für die Weltmeisterschaft qualifizieren kann. Jones, mit dem erkläften Ziel angetreten, England zur Nummer eins der Welt zu machen, räumte ein, dass das bisher erreichte Niveau gegen bestimmte Gegner nun nicht mehr ausreicht. Paris — Frankreich hat Irland mit seinem Es ist wohl der Höhepunkt meiner Karriere. Die Kommentare von Usern und Userinnen geben nicht notwendigerweise die Meinung der Redaktion wieder. England und Wales England, Schottland, Wales Das Original in digital. In seiner heutigen Form besteht das Turnier seit , nach der Aufnahme Italiens. Zwei Mannschaften gelang es, viermal hintereinander einen solchen Erfolg zu erzielen; Wales — und England — Frankreich und Schottland Zwei Mannschaften gelang es, viermal hintereinander einen solchen Erfolg zu erzielen; Wales — und England — August um Wales und Irland Patrick's Day kaum verlaufen. Der Sieg gegen alle Gegner. Wales durfte und nicht teilnehmen, da Kapitän Arthur Joseph Gould eine finanzielle Anerkennung erhalten hatte und die übrigen Verbände dies als unerlaubten Professionalismus betrachteten. August um Schottland und Wales weigerten sich, zu den noch bevorstehenden Auswärtsspielen in Irland anzutreten und begründeten dies mit der mangelnden Sicherheit.

The current champions are Ireland, having won the tournament. The Six Nations is the successor to the Home Nations Championship — and —39 , played between teams from England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales, which was the first international rugby union tournament.

England hold the record for outright wins of the Home Nations, Five Nations and Six Nations tournaments, with 28 titles, although Wales follow closely with 26 outright wins with the addition of 12 shared victories to England's Since the Six Nations era started in , only Italy and Scotland have failed to win the Six Nations title, although Scotland were the last winners of the Five Nations.

The tournament then became the Five Nations Championship in with the addition of France. The tournament was expanded in to become the Six Nations Championship with the addition of Italy.

Following the relative success of the Tier 2 nations in the Rugby World Cup , there were calls by Octavian Morariu , the president of Rugby Union's governing body for promotion and development, to let Georgia and Romania join the Six Nations due to their consistent success in the European Nations Cup and ability to compete in the Rugby World Cup.

Played annually, the format of the Championship is simple: Prior to the tournament, two points were awarded for a win, one for a draw and none for a loss.

Unlike many other rugby union competitions the bonus point system had not previously been used. On 30 November , the 6 Nations Committee announced that the bonus point system will be trialled for the Championship.

The system is similar to the one used in most rugby championships 0 points for a loss, 2 for a draw, 4 for a win, 1 for scoring four or more tries in match, and 1 for losing by 7 points or fewer , with the only difference being that a Grand Slam winner will be given 3 extra points to ensure they finish top of the table.

Prior to , teams equal on match points shared the championship. Since then, ties have been broken by considering the points difference of the teams.

The rules of the championship further provide that if teams tie on both match points and points difference, the team that scored the most tries wins the championship.

Were this decider to be a tie, the tying teams would share the championship. Also, the team that finishes at the bottom of the league table is said to have "won" the Wooden Spoon , although no actual trophy is given to the team.

A team that has lost all five matches is said to have been whitewashed. Italy are the holders of the most Wooden Spoon awards in the Six Nations era with eleven, and have been whitewashed six times.

However, each of the other five nations has accumulated more than that through competing in previous eras. The winners of the Six Nations are presented with the Championship Trophy.

It is a sterling silver trophy, designed by James Brent-Ward and made by a team of eight silversmiths from the London firm William Comyns. It has 15 side panels representing the 15 members of the team and with three handles to represent the three officials referee and two touch judges.

The cup has a capacity of 3. Within the mahogany base is a concealed drawer which contains six alternate finials , each a silver replica of one of the team emblems, which can be screwed on the detachable lid.

A new trophy was introduced for the Championship. Ireland were the last team to win the old trophy, and coincidentally, the first team to win the new one.

A team that wins all its games wins the ' Grand Slam '. Although this achievement has long been a feature of the tournament, it was not until that a physical Triple Crown trophy was awarded.

The Triple Crown may only be won by England, Ireland, Scotland or Wales, when one nation wins all three of their matches against the others, during the Six Nations Championship.

The Triple Crown honour has long been a feature of the tournament, dating back to the original Home Nations Championship, but the physical Triple Crown Trophy has been awarded only since The current holder of the Triple Crown is Ireland, who defeated England, Scotland, and Wales in the championship.

It has since been won three times by Ireland and twice by England and Wales. Several individual competitions take place under the umbrella of the tournament.

The oldest such regular competition is for the Calcutta Cup , contested annually between England and Scotland since Since , the Millennium Trophy has been awarded to the winner of the game between England and Ireland, and since the Centenary Quaich has been awarded to the winner of the game between Ireland and Scotland.

Since , France and Italy have contested the Giuseppe Garibaldi Trophy ; it was created for the th anniversary of the birth of Giuseppe Garibaldi , the Italian hero who helped unify Italy and volunteered in the French Republican Army against Prussia.

The following trophies are contested within the main competition, mostly as long-standing fixtures between pairs of teams:.

This arrangement was made necessary by the closure and subsequent demolition of Ireland's traditional home at Lansdowne Road ; the Aviva was built on the former Lansdowne Road site.

During the construction of the Aviva, Croke Park was the largest of the Six Nations grounds, with a capacity of 82, In Italy moved their home games from the Stadio Flaminio, which only held 32,, to the Stadio Olimpico, also in Rome, with a capacity of 72, The French Rugby Federation FFR had planned to build a new stadium of its own, seating 82, in the southern suburbs of Paris, [14] because of frustrations with their tenancy of the Stade de France.

England's Jonny Wilkinson currently holds the records for individual points in one match 35 points against Italy in and one season with 89 scored in Ronan O'Gara of Ireland holds the career scoring record with points to Wilkinson's , having surpassed Wilkinson in Round 3 of the championship.

The record for tries in a match is held by Scotsman George Lindsay who scored five tries against Wales in Ireland's Brian O'Driscoll has the Championship record for tries with The record for appearances is held by O'Gara, with 63 Six Nations appearances from the start of the Six Nations era in to his retirement in He surpassed countryman Mike Gibson in the first round of the tournament against Wales.

Gibson played in 56 Five Nations matches Italy had not become part of the Championship yet between and The most points scored by a team in one match was 80 points, scored by England against Italy in England also scored the most ever points in a season in with , and most tries in a season with Wales hold the record for the longest time without conceding a try, at minutes in the tournament.

The BBC has long covered the tournament, broadcasting all matches apart from England home matches between and , which were shown live by Sky Sports with highlights on the BBC.

In , it was announced that the BBC's coverage of the tournament on TV, radio and online would be extended to Until , the Championship had no title sponsor.

A new title sponsor was sought for the tournament and beyond. As the RBS initials brand was being phased out, the tournament was named after their banking arm NatWest , becoming the Natwest 6 Nations.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The revolutionary era begins with " Mohawks, Axes, and Taxes ," an account of ways in which the image of the Indian was reflected in propaganda and popular art between and The timeline resumes once again in " An American Synthesis ," which organizes events between roughly and around the founding of the Sons of Saint Tammany, a patriotic organization succeeding the Sons of Liberty, which combined European and Native American ideas and motifs.

This has made us formidable; this has given us great Weight and Authority with our neighboring Nations. We are a powerful Confederacy; and by your observing the same methods, our wise forefathers have taken, you will acquire such Strength and power.

Therefore, whatever befalls you, never fall out with one another. Artwork by John Kahionhes Fadden. This book has two major purposes. First, it seeks to weave a few new threads into the tapestry of American revolutionary history, to begin the telling of a larger story that has lain largely forgotten, scattered around dusty archives, for more than two centuries.

By arguing that American Indians principally the Iroquois played a major role in shaping the ideas of Franklin and thus, the American Revolution I do not mean to demean or denigrate European influences.

I mean not to subtract from the existing record, but to add an indigenous aspect, to show how America has been a creation of all its peoples.

In the telling, this story also seeks to demolish what remains of stereotypical assumptions that American Indians were somehow too simpleminded to engage in effective social and political organization.

No one may doubt any longer that there has been more to history, much more, than the simple opposition of "savagery" and "civilization.

This was simply not the case. Franklin and his fellow founders knew differently. They learned from American Indians, by assimilating into their vision of the future, aspects of American Indian wisdom and beauty.

Our task is to relearn history as they experienced it, in all its richness and complexity, and thereby to arrive at a more complete understanding of what we were, what we are, and what we may become.

The Iroquois' extension of liberty and political participation to women surprised some eighteenth-century Euro-American observers.

An unsigned contemporary manuscript in the New York State Library reported that when Iroquois men returned from hunting, they turned everything they had caught over to the women.

The writer sought to refute assumptions that Iroquois women were "slaves of their husbands. It was they who educated the young.

Another matter that surprised many contemporary observers was the Iroquois' sophisticated use of oratory. Their excellence with the spoken word, among other attributes, often caused Colden and others to compare the Iroquois to the Romans and Greeks.

An Annotated Bibliography , by Bruce E. Johansen Updated to November 12, reflecting the author's continued gathering of citations.

Since , I have kept a bibliography of commentary on assertions that the Haudenosaunee Iroquois and other Native American confederacies helped shape ideas of democracy in the early United States.

By , the bibliography had reached roughly items from more than books, as well as newspaper articles and book reviews numbering in the hundreds, academic journals, films, speeches, documentaries, and other sources.

The bibliography was assembled with the help of friends, as well as searches of libraries and book stores, and personal involvement in various skirmishes of the debate.

The number of references exploded during because I began to search several electronic databases. Before I explored these databases, I had been acquainted with the spread of the idea on a more personal level, especially through debates in academia that have been chronicled with Donald A.

Now, I was watching the idea take on an animus of its own, detached from its scholarly moorings. As the debate expanded in popular consciousness, a grand cacophony of diverse voices debated the type of history with which we will enter a new millennium on the Christian calendar.

Despite its caricature as a horror story of "political correctness" and the jarring nature of some of the debate over the issue, the idea that Native American confederacies are an important early form of democracy has become established in general discourse.

History is made in many ways, by many people; the spread of the idea that Native American confederacies especially the Haudenosaunee Confederacy helped shape the intellectual development of democracy m the United States and Europe is an example of how our notions of history have been changing with the infusion of multicultural voices.

It is fascinating to watch the change in all its forms -- and the debate over the issue in all its cacophonous variety.

This bibliography comprises the "field notes" of my journey. Immigrants from Europe often have borrowed from native peoples, embraced this knowledge as their own, and then forgotten its origins.

Meanwhile, the prevailing assumptions of the "winners'" histories condemn Native Americans as primitive and brutish.

The reconstruction of history in its true complexity takes some work, since it often runs counter to the heavy weight of well-established assumptions.

So it has been in the evolution of democracy, [Richard] Williams [executive director of the American Indian College Fund] believes: Bork's Slouching Toward Gomorrah: Modern Liberalism and American Decline from our Library's new-books shelf with a sense of impending ironic triumph.

Would I be able to add yet another sliming of my life's academic work by a neo-conservative household name who has never heard of me? After consulting Bork's index under "Iroquois Confederacy," on pages and , I hit pay dirt.

I ceased to be a mild-mannered middle-aged professor of principally Norwegian extraction who has spent 15 years at a Midwestern university teaching undergraduates how to write newspaper stories and essays on Black Elk.

Suddenly, I saw myself portrayed by Bork as a primary sloucher toward Gomorrah in his pantheon of politically motivated assassins of western civilization's most cherished canons, an advocate of the demon multiculturalism, and a bona fide barbarian at the Gate.

This is heady stuff for a professor from Nebraska. Oren Lyons at the UN: Opening Speech for "The Year of the Indigenous Peoples", This proclamation brings home inspiration and renewed dedication to our quest for self-determination, justice, freedom and peace in our Homelands and our Territories.

Indeed, the quest is a renewal of what we enjoyed before the coming of our White Brothers from across the sea.

We were instructed to create societies based on the principles of Peace, Equity, Justice, and the Power of Good Minds.

Our societies are based upon great democratic principles of the authority of the people and equal responsibilities for the men and the women.

This was a great way of life across this Great Turtle Island and freedom with respect was everywhere. Our leaders were instructed to be men of vision and to make every decision on behalf of the seventh generation to come; to have compassion and love for those generations yet unborn.

We were instructed to give thanks for All That Sustains Us. Thus, we created great ceremonies of Thanksgiving for the life-giving forces of the Natural World, as long as we carried out our ceremonies, life would continue.

We were told that 'The Seed is the Law. It is The Law of Regeneration. Within the seed is the mysterious force of life and creation. Our mothers nurture and guard that seed and we respect and love them for that.

Just as we love I hi do' hah, our Mother Earth, for the same spiritual work and mystery. In our time, the academic landscape teems with Native people who have the requisite degrees, academic positions and publication records to write excellent encyclopedia entries.

In , treaty commissioners at Albany recall the words of Canassatego. Dating the Iroquois Confederacy , by Bruce E.

The Haudenosaunee Iroquois Confederacy, one of the world's oldest democracies, is at least three centuries older than most previous estimates, according to research by Barbara Mann and Jerry Fields of Toledo University, Ohio.

Using a combination of documentary sources, solar eclipse data, and Iroquois oral history, Mann and Fields assert that the Iroquois Confederacy's body of law was adopted by the Senecas the last of the five nations to ratify it August 31, The ratification council convened at a site that is now a football field in Victor, New York.

The site is called Gonandaga by the Seneca. I want to talk about our original treaties because we not only made treaties with the United States, but we also made treaties with other foreign countries, and perhaps the first one that we made was with the Dutch.

We used a wampum belt. That is, a two row wampum belt with two parallel lines on a field of white. We used wampum belts to help us commemorate our treaties.

Wampum, as you may know, is made of shell, a combination of quahog and the periwinkle shell, cut and made into tubular beads and then strung into a belt.

The purpose of the belt, to use an anthropological term, is as a mnemonic device for remembering important ideas, so that when the reader of the belt holds it in his hands, the idea literally comes from the belt.

On the one hand, we are travelling in our canoe, down the river of life, and travelling in a parallel line in their boat are those Europeans or Euro-Americans who are here on our land, Turtle Island.

We are travelling along and we have an agreement with one another. I am not going to get out of my canoe and get into your boat and try to steer it, and I am going to ask you not to get out of your boat and get into my canoe and try to steer it.

We are going to allow one another to exist. We are going to accept the notion, that we are sovereign, that we have our own form of government and that you have yours.

We have our own way of life, and that you have yours, and that we are not trying to convince you to be us; we are trying to convince you that because of our long history here, we have a knowledge of this place where we live.

And so, we use this two row wampum belt even now, as the basis for all of the other treaties that we made after this time. Over the past 18 months, the Haudenosaunee Environmental Task Force has labored on a document which would begin the process of detailing the environmental impacts that the western society has had on our lands and territories.

The proposed Summit is a combination of several months of intense work, both by United Nations Environmental Programme UNEP and the task force established by the Confederacy to review the range of environmental hazards to which their communities have been exposed and to document as precisely as possible, the sources and nature of these hazards, as well as to design a plan of action for their remediation and the environmental restoration of the territories in question.

We, the Haudenosaunee, bring our case to the United Nations to draw international attention to the environmental issues affecting the indigenous communities in North America.

Having made a major contribution to the Rio Earth Summit in bringing about Chapter 26 of Agenda 21 , we maintain that our traditional strategy for sustainable development practices and coexistence is a model for the future survival of humanity on earth.

We are committed to continuing our sustainable economic practices. Principles for Environmental Restoration p. Chapter 26 of Agenda 21 formulated at the Rio Earth Summit recognizes the right of the indigenous communities and their representatives to undertake reviews as well as develop environmental strategies with regard to land and water based pollution.

The restoration must not be confined just to removing the wastes and pollution, but must also be extended to the social and cultural dimensions of the communities, the nations and the Confederacy.

As sovereign governments, the Haudenosaunee have complete jurisdiction over native territories. The Haudenosaunee jurisdiction should extend cooperatively to the surrounding areas that impact the ecosystem of the native territories.

Sixnations Video

Extended Highlights: France v England Die Innenseite war ursprünglich ebenfalls aus Silber, erlitt aber wegen des Üay pal Korrosionsschäden und wurde deshalb mit karätigem Gold verkleidet. England, Frankreich, Irland, Schottland und Wales Während dieser Blackout-Zeit kann man aber prima Rugby im Fernsehen zeigen. Im Gegensatz zu den meisten anderen Rugby-Union-Wettbewerben wurde das sonst übliche Bonuspunktesystem bis zur Saison [1] nicht angewandt, da die theoretische Möglichkeit besteht, dass das Ergebnis verfälscht wird. Stockdale, ein casino royale watch online greek subs Jungspund aus Ulster, der erst im Sommer sein internationales Debüt gegeben hatte, schüttelte einen Bayern fußballspiel quasi aus dem Ärmel: Mit sieben Tries im Verlauf des Turniers stellte er Beste Spielothek in Haupersweiler finden neue Bestmarke auf, brauchte dafür nur vier Spiele. England und Irland Das Original in digital. Frankreich und Irland Beste Spielothek in Rothenbek finden effizient die Iren ihre Chancen in Punkte ummünzten, beeindruckte. Turnier unvollständig [5]

The BBC has long covered the tournament, broadcasting all matches apart from England home matches between and , which were shown live by Sky Sports with highlights on the BBC.

In , it was announced that the BBC's coverage of the tournament on TV, radio and online would be extended to Until , the Championship had no title sponsor.

A new title sponsor was sought for the tournament and beyond. As the RBS initials brand was being phased out, the tournament was named after their banking arm NatWest , becoming the Natwest 6 Nations.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List of Six Nations Championship records. The first ever Home Nations International Championship was played in Retrieved 23 September Retrieved 25 February Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 24 February Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 5 February Retrieved 28 January Archived from the original PDF on 14 February Retrieved 29 September Archived from the original on 6 September Archived from the original on 15 June Retrieved 6 July Retrieved 4 February Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 8 August Retrieved 28 February Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 9 July Retrieved 23 January Retrieved 11 March France Ireland Italy Scotland Wales.

England Ireland Italy Scotland Wales. England France Italy Scotland Wales. England France Ireland Scotland Wales.

England France Ireland Italy Wales. England France Ireland Italy Scotland. International rugby union competitions.

Oceania Cup Oceania U20 Championship. England national rugby union team. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot. France national rugby union team. Ireland national rugby union team.

Irish Rugby Football Union. All Players Brian O'Driscoll tries caps. The Fields of Athenry Ireland's Call. Italy national rugby union team. Stadio Olimpico Stadio Flaminio.

Sevens Italy A U20s U18s. Scotland national rugby union team. Wales national rugby union team. Wales A Sevens U20s U18s. Rugby union in Italy.

Italy Emerging 7's U U Clubs Players Coaches Referees Venues. Retrieved from " https: Six Nations Championship establishments in Europe Rugby union competitions in Europe for national teams Recurring sporting events established in International rugby union competitions hosted by England International rugby union competitions hosted by France International rugby union competitions hosted by Ireland International rugby union competitions hosted by Scotland International rugby union competitions hosted by Wales International rugby union competitions hosted by Italy England national rugby union team France national rugby union team Ireland national rugby union team Scotland national rugby union team Wales national rugby union team Italy national rugby union team.

Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 22 October , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

The Iroquois' extension of liberty and political participation to women surprised some eighteenth-century Euro-American observers.

An unsigned contemporary manuscript in the New York State Library reported that when Iroquois men returned from hunting, they turned everything they had caught over to the women.

The writer sought to refute assumptions that Iroquois women were "slaves of their husbands. It was they who educated the young.

Another matter that surprised many contemporary observers was the Iroquois' sophisticated use of oratory. Their excellence with the spoken word, among other attributes, often caused Colden and others to compare the Iroquois to the Romans and Greeks.

An Annotated Bibliography , by Bruce E. Johansen Updated to November 12, reflecting the author's continued gathering of citations.

Since , I have kept a bibliography of commentary on assertions that the Haudenosaunee Iroquois and other Native American confederacies helped shape ideas of democracy in the early United States.

By , the bibliography had reached roughly items from more than books, as well as newspaper articles and book reviews numbering in the hundreds, academic journals, films, speeches, documentaries, and other sources.

The bibliography was assembled with the help of friends, as well as searches of libraries and book stores, and personal involvement in various skirmishes of the debate.

The number of references exploded during because I began to search several electronic databases. Before I explored these databases, I had been acquainted with the spread of the idea on a more personal level, especially through debates in academia that have been chronicled with Donald A.

Now, I was watching the idea take on an animus of its own, detached from its scholarly moorings. As the debate expanded in popular consciousness, a grand cacophony of diverse voices debated the type of history with which we will enter a new millennium on the Christian calendar.

Despite its caricature as a horror story of "political correctness" and the jarring nature of some of the debate over the issue, the idea that Native American confederacies are an important early form of democracy has become established in general discourse.

History is made in many ways, by many people; the spread of the idea that Native American confederacies especially the Haudenosaunee Confederacy helped shape the intellectual development of democracy m the United States and Europe is an example of how our notions of history have been changing with the infusion of multicultural voices.

It is fascinating to watch the change in all its forms -- and the debate over the issue in all its cacophonous variety. This bibliography comprises the "field notes" of my journey.

Immigrants from Europe often have borrowed from native peoples, embraced this knowledge as their own, and then forgotten its origins.

Meanwhile, the prevailing assumptions of the "winners'" histories condemn Native Americans as primitive and brutish.

The reconstruction of history in its true complexity takes some work, since it often runs counter to the heavy weight of well-established assumptions.

So it has been in the evolution of democracy, [Richard] Williams [executive director of the American Indian College Fund] believes: Bork's Slouching Toward Gomorrah: Modern Liberalism and American Decline from our Library's new-books shelf with a sense of impending ironic triumph.

Would I be able to add yet another sliming of my life's academic work by a neo-conservative household name who has never heard of me?

After consulting Bork's index under "Iroquois Confederacy," on pages and , I hit pay dirt. I ceased to be a mild-mannered middle-aged professor of principally Norwegian extraction who has spent 15 years at a Midwestern university teaching undergraduates how to write newspaper stories and essays on Black Elk.

Suddenly, I saw myself portrayed by Bork as a primary sloucher toward Gomorrah in his pantheon of politically motivated assassins of western civilization's most cherished canons, an advocate of the demon multiculturalism, and a bona fide barbarian at the Gate.

This is heady stuff for a professor from Nebraska. Oren Lyons at the UN: Opening Speech for "The Year of the Indigenous Peoples", This proclamation brings home inspiration and renewed dedication to our quest for self-determination, justice, freedom and peace in our Homelands and our Territories.

Indeed, the quest is a renewal of what we enjoyed before the coming of our White Brothers from across the sea. We were instructed to create societies based on the principles of Peace, Equity, Justice, and the Power of Good Minds.

Our societies are based upon great democratic principles of the authority of the people and equal responsibilities for the men and the women.

This was a great way of life across this Great Turtle Island and freedom with respect was everywhere. Our leaders were instructed to be men of vision and to make every decision on behalf of the seventh generation to come; to have compassion and love for those generations yet unborn.

We were instructed to give thanks for All That Sustains Us. Thus, we created great ceremonies of Thanksgiving for the life-giving forces of the Natural World, as long as we carried out our ceremonies, life would continue.

We were told that 'The Seed is the Law. It is The Law of Regeneration. Within the seed is the mysterious force of life and creation.

Our mothers nurture and guard that seed and we respect and love them for that. Just as we love I hi do' hah, our Mother Earth, for the same spiritual work and mystery.

In our time, the academic landscape teems with Native people who have the requisite degrees, academic positions and publication records to write excellent encyclopedia entries.

In , treaty commissioners at Albany recall the words of Canassatego. Dating the Iroquois Confederacy , by Bruce E. The Haudenosaunee Iroquois Confederacy, one of the world's oldest democracies, is at least three centuries older than most previous estimates, according to research by Barbara Mann and Jerry Fields of Toledo University, Ohio.

Using a combination of documentary sources, solar eclipse data, and Iroquois oral history, Mann and Fields assert that the Iroquois Confederacy's body of law was adopted by the Senecas the last of the five nations to ratify it August 31, The ratification council convened at a site that is now a football field in Victor, New York.

The site is called Gonandaga by the Seneca. I want to talk about our original treaties because we not only made treaties with the United States, but we also made treaties with other foreign countries, and perhaps the first one that we made was with the Dutch.

We used a wampum belt. That is, a two row wampum belt with two parallel lines on a field of white. We used wampum belts to help us commemorate our treaties.

Wampum, as you may know, is made of shell, a combination of quahog and the periwinkle shell, cut and made into tubular beads and then strung into a belt.

The purpose of the belt, to use an anthropological term, is as a mnemonic device for remembering important ideas, so that when the reader of the belt holds it in his hands, the idea literally comes from the belt.

On the one hand, we are travelling in our canoe, down the river of life, and travelling in a parallel line in their boat are those Europeans or Euro-Americans who are here on our land, Turtle Island.

We are travelling along and we have an agreement with one another. I am not going to get out of my canoe and get into your boat and try to steer it, and I am going to ask you not to get out of your boat and get into my canoe and try to steer it.

We are going to allow one another to exist. We are going to accept the notion, that we are sovereign, that we have our own form of government and that you have yours.

We have our own way of life, and that you have yours, and that we are not trying to convince you to be us; we are trying to convince you that because of our long history here, we have a knowledge of this place where we live.

And so, we use this two row wampum belt even now, as the basis for all of the other treaties that we made after this time. Over the past 18 months, the Haudenosaunee Environmental Task Force has labored on a document which would begin the process of detailing the environmental impacts that the western society has had on our lands and territories.

The proposed Summit is a combination of several months of intense work, both by United Nations Environmental Programme UNEP and the task force established by the Confederacy to review the range of environmental hazards to which their communities have been exposed and to document as precisely as possible, the sources and nature of these hazards, as well as to design a plan of action for their remediation and the environmental restoration of the territories in question.

We, the Haudenosaunee, bring our case to the United Nations to draw international attention to the environmental issues affecting the indigenous communities in North America.

Having made a major contribution to the Rio Earth Summit in bringing about Chapter 26 of Agenda 21 , we maintain that our traditional strategy for sustainable development practices and coexistence is a model for the future survival of humanity on earth.

We are committed to continuing our sustainable economic practices. Principles for Environmental Restoration p. Chapter 26 of Agenda 21 formulated at the Rio Earth Summit recognizes the right of the indigenous communities and their representatives to undertake reviews as well as develop environmental strategies with regard to land and water based pollution.

The restoration must not be confined just to removing the wastes and pollution, but must also be extended to the social and cultural dimensions of the communities, the nations and the Confederacy.

As sovereign governments, the Haudenosaunee have complete jurisdiction over native territories.

The Haudenosaunee jurisdiction should extend cooperatively to the surrounding areas that impact the ecosystem of the native territories.

Haudenosaunee should be assured adequate international legal resources that must ensure that the U. The hard work of the Haudenosaunee on behalf of the world's native populations have won for them many friends at the UN.

On July 18 the Confederacy had official representatives from all six nations. This document summarizes the current conditions on Iroquois lands and offers concrete solutions to return Mother Earth to her former state.

It proposes the creation of an indigenous environmental learning center to study problem areas and offer solutions. This center would also coordinate information, define economic development strategies and assist in the preservation of culture.

Among us, it is women who are responsible for fostering life. In our traditions, it is women who carry the seeds, both of our own future generations and of the plant life.

It is women who plant and tend the gardens, and women who bear and raise the children. It is my right and duty, as a woman and a mother and a grandmother, to speak to you about these things, to bring our minds together on them.

In making any law, our chiefs must always consider three things: We believe that all lawmakers should be required to think this way, that all constitutions should contain these rules.

We are the carriers of knowledge and ideas that the world needs today. We know how to live with this land: Our families are beyond the small, isolated nuclear families that are so convenient to big industry and big government and so damaging to communities.

The Haudenosaunee Report commends the European Parliament, which earlier this month, in a stringing rebuff to Europe's biotechnology industry, rejected a directive that would have granted legal protection to patents on life forms.

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Sixnations

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