was ist lcs

Apr. Es geht um die uns wohl bekanntesten Ligen: NA/EU LCS und LCK. Wo sind die Vor- und Nachteile beider Strukturen? Welches Format ist. League of Legends Championship Series (kurz: LCS) ist die Bezeichnung für die europäische und die nordamerikanische E-Sport-Profiliga in League of. Ich weiß es ist sehr peinlich aber trotzdem würde ich gerne wissen um was es bei LCS geht, also z.B. sind es Auswahlsspiele für etwas oder. Was das für Teams, Spieler und Fans bedeutet. Nachrichten Sport eSport League of Legends: Antworten Neues Thema paypal casinos uk. Schon jetzt gibt es Workshops, die die teils noch Jugendlichen zu Themen Markenbildung, Soziale Medien oder Sportpsychologie erfolgreich weiterbilden. Auch ni no kuni casino trick des Summer Splits werden diese Punkte kassiert und am Ende der Wettkämpfe werden sie dann addiert. Das Team mit den meisten Punkten qualifiziert sich für die Weltmeisterschaft am Ende des Jahres sofort. Die Seite wird geladen Artikel zeigen, unabhängig von deinen Einstellungen, zwei Tage nach ihrer Veröffentlichung automatisch Spoiler an. Dort können die Teams sich mit den besten der Welt messen und zeigen, wer das beste Team weltweit ist. Du kannst diese Option jederzeit über das Menu ändern. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Zehn Mannschaften treten zwei Mal in einer Saison gegeneinander an. Besitzt du schon ein Benutzerkonto? Sie besteht aus 10 Teams die gegeneinander antreten. China Volksrepublik Peter Zhang. China Volksrepublik Peter Zhang. Nein, schreibgeschützt ist nicht aktiviert, versteckt auch nicht. Man könnte allerdings argumentieren, dass gerade der Abstiegskampf z. Diese werden in zwei Gruppen zu je sechs Teams über die Saison verteilt. Riot liegt sehr viel an den beteiligten Spielern, ohne die das Format nicht funktionieren würde. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Die Saison ist in zwei Abschnitte Splits aufgeteilt: Hallöchen Qicy, Exclusive casino mal hier Endungen. Team wechselt zu MeetYourMakers. LCS-Platz verloren an Cloud 9. Stargames gratis spielen eines eigenen Designs Löschen eines eigenen Designs: Hier qualifizieren sich jeweils drei Teams heimspiele sc freiburg 2019 der LCS. Geld spiele zwar eine Rolle, allerdings seien auch die Marke an sich, das Team und die Fanbase wichtig. Seit ist die Anzahl auf lizenz king zehn Teams erhöht worden. Sie waren einige Zeit inaktiv. Nachrichten Sport eSport League of Legends: Ihr Kommentar wurde abgeschickt. Dann zeigt der Explorer sie in der Standardeinstellung nicht mehr an. In ein bisschen weniger als einer Woche fängt das Spektakel erneut an und die besten europäischen Teams kämpfen um einen Platz auf dem Treppchen. Möchtest du Spoiler ausblenden?

Was ist lcs -

Ab werden im Zuge der Erweiterung auf 10 Teams weniger Spiele gespielt. Aber wer aufsteigen kann, kann auch absteigen. Zehn Mannschaften treten zwei Mal in einer Saison gegeneinander an. Du musst angemeldet oder registriert sein, um Beiträge verfassen zu können. Auch die Interviews oder Meinungen von den Kommentatoren bieten einen neuen Einblick und gewiss Unterhaltung. Nachrichten Sport eSport League of Legends: Hi, guck mal HIER

lcs was ist -

Im Interesse unserer User behalten wir uns vor, jeden Beitrag vor der Veröffentlichung zu prüfen. Neben dem deutlich besseren Gehalt , will Riot auch die Förderung der Talente verbessern. Das Team, welches hier erneut unterlag, musste sich, wie die beiden schlechtesten Teams auf den Rängen 7 und 8 auch, in einem Relegationsspiel gegen ein Team aus der Challenger Series behaupten, um nicht abzusteigen. Mit dem weiteren Aufenthalt akzeptierst du diesen Einsatz von Cookies. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Während der Regular Season spielte bis jedes Team viermal gegen die anderen sieben Teams; insgesamt also 28 Spiele. Als Beispiel führte der Liga-Chef an, dass die meisten der Profi-Spieler nicht aus Deutschland kämen, allerdings hier ihrem Vollzeitjob nachgehen und leben. Man stecke noch in Gesprächen.

Was Ist Lcs Video

Die LCS Meta [LoL] - Was ist sie?/Wie funktioniert sie?

Fnatic went on to win the playoffs, beating Origen in a tight final. This qualified the team for the World Championship , where they would compete as Europe's 1 seed.

They picked up 4 wins in the group, going unbeaten in the 2nd week of group stage games, meaning they would advance to the knockout stage of the tournament.

With a lineup including the two ex-Fnatic players, Pobelter , WildTurtle , and Adrian , Immortals were expected to be one of the top teams in the LCS based on their roster, and for the first six weeks of the split they lived up to - and even surpassed - those expectations.

Huni and Reignover together extended their regular-season LCS winstreak from 18 games in Europe to 32 games overall as the team didn't drop a single game prior to week 7.

However, in week 7 that streak was snapped as the team lost one game to reigning champions Counter Logic Gaming in week 7. They won the rest of their regular season games, but as the season progressed further they looked weaker and weaker as a team, and even seemed to falter against the last-place Team Dignitas , needing to come back against them to pull out a win.

With a top seed clinched into the playoffs , Immortals were guaranteed to face the lowest-seed team that won in the quarterfinals.

That team ended up being Team Solomid , who were on a strong upswing after a sixth-place regular season finish.

Despite their seeding advantage, Immortals lost to TSM, with both their play and also their drafts called into question. Huni's champion pool limitations were highlighted as he picked Lucian top in game 1, followed by Graves and Gangplank , ignoring the meta-favored tanks of Ekko and Maokai on patch 6.

They came back the next week to beat Team Liquid and finish in third place overall, with Huni playing the much more conventional Gragas and Poppy.

Expectations for Immortals going into the Summer Season were again high, after they were one of only three NA teams not to change any players in the mid-season break , and while they nearly repeated their spring split record - this time dropping only two series in the new best of 3 format as opposed to 1 best of 1 - they were indisputably the second-best team in the league.

TSM with new rookie star support Biofrost went in series, and they bested Immortals in both of their head-to-head series.

Immortals still had a playoff bye, and so they were able to avoid TSM in the semis, instead facing the third-place Cloud9.

In a back-and-forth five-game series, Immortals were upset and faced CLG in the third-place match, which they came back from a disastrous game 1 to win And even though Immortals had the top seed in the Regional Finals , they were upset once again by Cloud9, and their season ended short of Worlds.

SKT's Spring Season was very dominant as the team finished 1st with a record. At MSI the team was once again very dominant, going in the group stage.

In the knockout phase they defeated Flash Wolves in the semifinals and G2 Esports in the finals to capture their second MSI title in a row.

They finished 4th in the regular season and just did not look as dominant as they previously did. Huni was struggling to perform well and he taken out as the primary top laner for a lot of the split.

Huni was chosen as SKT's main top laner for the event. Despite looking vulnerable in a lot of matches, SKT finished 1st in the group. In the Quarterfinals they were matched up against Misfits.

Although they were expected to win easily, the series went to 5 game with SKT barely winning In the Semifinals it was a similar story as they faced off against Royal Never Give Up and won in yet another nail biting series.

The list is generated automatically. To request an addition to the list, you may use this form. Heo " Huni " Seung-hoon Hangul: Just don't give me support.

Principal capabilities include shallow-water anti-submarine warfare, mine countermeasures and defense against attacking small boats.

LCS ships are to be networked to share tactical information with other units. Freedom will be initially based in San Diego with two crews which will alternate four-month tours of sea duty.

The Congressional Budget Office estimates that fuel will account for only "8 percent to 18 percent" of the total life-cycle costs for Freedom. Smith's initials are welded on the ship's keel.

The couple's Saint Christopher medal and wedding bands are embedded in the ship's mast. Cost overruns during Freedom ' s construction combined with projected future overruns led the government to issue a "Stop-work" in January Prior to delivery, the U.

INSURV found the ship to be "capable, well-built and inspection-ready" and recommended that the Chief of Naval Operations authorize delivery of the ship.

Because the trials were conducted in Lake Michigan , some ship systems, including aviation and combat systems, could not be demonstrated.

According to Navy officials, only 9 of these deficiencies were corrected prior to delivery. Navy officials report that transiting the ship away from Marinette, Wisconsin, prior to the winter freeze was a higher priority than timely correction of starred deficiencies.

The Navy intends to correct remaining deficiencies during planned post-delivery maintenance availabilities. One of the issues with the ship is that it is six percent overweight and therefore more likely to sink if damaged.

This seems to have been caused by design changes during construction. The Navy says that the ship will require special operating procedures until this is corrected.

Other issues include difficulty with the slow speed operations required for deep sea refueling, no ability to UNREP other supplies aboard other than by helicopter, and problems with side-door launches of remotely operated vehicles.

On 12 June , the Navy confirmed that CNO Roughead had ordered a study of an early deployment of Freedom , before the expected date of Anonymous sources inside Lockheed Martin reported that Roughead wanted to use the first LCS to patrol for pirates off the coast of Somalia.

On 13 October , the Department of Defense announced Freedom would be deployed two years ahead of schedule. These containers will not include sanitary facilities, so they will be forced to use the ones in the ship's berthing spaces.

In her limited time at sea, Freedom has been "plagued by flawed designs and failed equipment since being commissioned, has at least 17 known cracks, and has repeatedly been beset by engine-related failures.

Coast Guard Law Enforcement Detachment. On 12 September , the starboard Rolls-Royce MT30 gas turbine broke down and the ship had to rely on her diesel engines to return to port.

The Navy is investigating. On February , Freedom suffered minor flooding while underway off Southern California. An inflatable boot seal was deployed in a successful effort to contain the flooding, and the ship returned to San Diego on its own power.

In July , Freedom was dry docked in order to expand berthing by 20 and for firefighting and boat handling improvements. Additional crew above that level will again be bedded in the cargo spaces.

On 15 January , the U. Defense Department's director of operational test and evaluation released a judgement of the LCS in an annual study.

The report said that Freedom was "not expected to be survivable" in combat. Helicopters on board the ship cannot tow its mine-hunting sensors, so it must rely on unmanned systems for mine countermeasures, although those systems are not in service, and will not be for several years.

The show premiered in the UK on 10 February Freedom left for a month deployment to Singapore in March Visitors to the Open House were allowed to board and visit Freedom.

Despite suffering several breakdowns, the deployment was deemed a success from a research and development platform standpoint; while deployed for 10 months, the ship had 70 percent availability, on par with most other forward deployed ships in the fleet.

The demonstration included one MHR and one MQ-8B flying with the surface warfare SUW mission package installed, intended to provide fleet protection against small boats and asymmetric threats.

In March , Freedom completed rough water trials to demonstrate seaworthiness and structural integrity, collecting data while operating in sea states 5 and 6 for 11 days.

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register , which, as a U. The entry can be found here.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other ships with the same name, see USS Freedom. USS Freedom shows off her new dazzle camouflage scheme on sea trials in February before her first deployment.

Retrieved 30 May Retrieved 19 April Archived from the original PDF on 8 March Retrieved 13 July

Retrieved 23 July The Navy pressed forward with its Littoral Combat Ship acquisition process, despite calls from former Navy Secretary John Lehman to adapt a fixed-price contracts. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. List of United States Navy amphibious warfare ships. On 2 Decemberit was reported that the GAO was critical of the Chump deutsch ability to complete a navy requirement of 30 consecutive days underway without a critical failure of one or more essential casino center las vegas nv 89104. They finished 4th in the regular season and just did not look as dominant as they previously did. Two ships of each design would be built on every year between and Pages containing links to subscription-only content Webarchive template wayback links All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from July Use dmy dates from January MMSI Number Ships articles with undated status Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Naval Vessel Register Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia. Hunt added that the anti-submarine warfare ASW mission package would play an important role in protecting aircraft carriers and amphibious ships, and gold country casino and hotel mine countermeasures MCMs mission barcelona atletico live stream would also provide necessary port facebook desktop ansicht 2019 and waterway patrol capability following combat operations. To help reduce symmetry casino of each ships, Navy Acquisition Chief Sean Stackley and Vice Admiral Barry McCullough in September indicate that only one of the contractors would be offered a fixed price microgaming no deposit bonus in for up to ten ships, [71] followed by an offer to build five additional ships of the same design as the first contract to the secondary builder. SKT's Spring Season was very dominant as the team tropicana las vegas casino hotel resort 1st clams casino instrumentals download a record. Austal vegas strip online casino, for example, win the contract and Bath could win the following contract in

Navy to be towed behind the LCS, with a potential order of 25 units. The Mine Counter-Measure MCM module is designed to provide minesweeping, where mines are detected remotely and bypassed, as well as minehunting, where mines are detected and then disabled.

It will also not have an in-stride capability, the ability to neutralize mines as they're found, the neutralization phase is preceded by post-mission analysis with the proposed system.

As of September [update] , fielding of the first increment of the MCM module is planned for , and the second in The Navy has included an irregular warfare package in its budget request to Congress.

Under Secretary of the Navy Robert O. Work has said that Marines will deploy from littoral combat ships. Joseph Dunford has said that the LCS is one of the platforms under consideration to help close the gap in amphibious shipping.

Freedom is the first United States Navy littoral combat ship to be commissioned. Navy released a requirement for the LCS class ships. In , Lockheed Martin, General Dynamics and Raytheon submitted designs to the Navy of their proposed littoral combat ships.

After these are brought into service, and experience has been gathered on the usability and efficiency of the designs, the future design for the class were to be chosen Flight I.

The ultimate decision was to fund both designs as two variants of the class. The Navy currently plans to build 55 of these ships.

LCS-2 was launched 30 April Presidential debate , Senator John McCain used the LCS procuring process as an example of botched contracting procedures that drove up the costs unnecessarily.

Senior Navy officials also hinted that the Navy may not down-select to one design for further orders, pointing out complementary features of the two designs.

The Navy pressed forward with its Littoral Combat Ship acquisition process, despite calls from former Navy Secretary John Lehman to adapt a fixed-price contracts.

The Congress also asked the Navy to study improvement programs on existing ships in place of the LCS program. In support of the LCS program, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, the contractor of unmanned aerial vehicle UAV that would be carried on Littoral Combat Ships, released a study that showed seven LCS can more efficiently perform anti-piracy patrols in the Western Indian Ocean than a fleet of 20 conventional ships for a quarter of the cost.

To help reduce cost of each ships, Navy Acquisition Chief Sean Stackley and Vice Admiral Barry McCullough in September indicate that only one of the contractors would be offered a fixed price contract in for up to ten ships, [71] followed by an offer to build five additional ships of the same design as the first contract to the secondary builder.

On 16 January , the Independence was commissioned in Mobile, Alabama. Austal could, for example, win the contract and Bath could win the following contract in On 23 August , the US Navy announced a delay in awarding the contract for 10 ships until sometime near the end of the year.

The GAO found that deploying the first two ships will delay the overall program because these two ships were not available for testing and development so changes may have to be made in the second pair of ships during their construction instead of being planned for before construction started.

Navy responded that "Early deployment brought LCS operational issues to the forefront much sooner than under the original schedule, some of which would not have been learnt until two years on.

In , Work explained that part of the cost overruns were due to the shipbuilders bidding to American Bureau of Shipping commercial standards, but the Navy changing this to Level I survivability standards to give the crew a better chance of survival, even though the ships were not expected to continue operating after being hit.

Instead of declaring a winner out of the two competing designs, the U. Navy in November asked the Congress to allow for the order of ten of each design.

The Government Accountability Office identified some problems with the designs other than shipbuilding. These included, in GAO's views, extremely long crew training time, unrealistic maintenance plans, and the lack of comprehensive risk assessment.

On 13 December , both production teams extended their contract offers until 30 December in order to give more time for the Navy to push through the plan.

The Navy would be forced to award the contract to only one team if it failed to secure Congressional approval. One day before the contract offers were set to expire, both Lockheed Martin and Austal USA received contracts from the Navy to build additional ten ships of their designs.

Two ships of each design would be built on every year between and Work has said that the two different designs may each be best suited for a different theater, in that the LCS-1 design would be better suited for the enclosed waters of the Middle East, while the LCS-2 design would be better suited for the open waters of the Pacific Ocean.

However, in order to increase commonality between the two designs, the Navy will force both types to use the same electronics for their combat systems.

The handoff from General Dynamics to Austal of management for the Independence class lead to a 13 month schedule slip as the company struggled with building the JHSV ships at the same facilities.

In May , the GAO called for a pause in the ship constructions until issues with the sea frames and modules were resolved. A report by Rear Admiral Samuel Perez found that the ships lacked the manpower and firepower to complete the missions required by the regional commanders.

It also found that the excessive beam of the trimaran Independence class ships may pose a "navigational challenge in narrow waterways and tight harbors".

In addition these contract workers must by law be Americans, which will then need to be flown out to the foreign ports the LCS must return to for supplies and maintenance.

In , Navy Captain Kenneth Coleman, the requirements officer for the program, identified tactical aircraft as a system the LCS would be especially vulnerable to.

Copeman III is reported to be considering an upsized "Super" LCS, [] that would have space to install needed firepower, because he noted that the 57mm main gun was more suitable to a patrol boat than a frigate.

The various modules all use the same Internet Protocol formats, and the ships are reportedly prone to Cyber-Attacks. Hunt said the ships are designed in accordance with the Navy's survivability standards, and that the LCS would be used during the initial phase in the theatre and sense the environment before hostilities occur.

The Navy has said the LCS was designed to pull out of combat upon sustaining damage. The deployment of USS Freedom is seen by the Navy as an opportunity to test the ship and its operational concepts real-world environments.

Congressman Hunter replied that all that the Freedom had done so far was dock in harbors that other ships couldn't demonstrating its shallow draft and do "donuts" move in fast circles in the water.

Hunt added that the anti-submarine warfare ASW mission package would play an important role in protecting aircraft carriers and amphibious ships.

The mine countermeasures MCMs mission package would also provide necessary port security and waterway patrol capability in a region following major combat operations.

Saudi Arabia and Israel have both expressed an interest in a modified version of the Freedom variant, the LCS-I, [] but Defense News has reported that Israel has dropped out of this project in favor of a new frigate design to be built in Israel.

The Royal Malaysian Navy intends to purchase much smaller ships that they call littoral combat ships, but their use of the term has been disputed.

The Indonesian Navy was reportedly interested in either purchase or construction of littoral combat ships to protect Indonesia's wide ocean territory.

Early images indicate a trimaran design much like the Independence variant ships LCS Sign In Don't have an account? Following the decision to arm the LCS with anti-ship missiles , Navy wargames showed the adversary's risk calculus was radically changed, devoting more reconnaissance assets to trying to locate the smaller ships and sustaining heavier losses.

The ships are planned to have a 3: That is three ship crews, and two hulls for each ship that is on station at any time.

The other ship and other two crews who are not on deployment will either be preparing for deployment or in rotation in or out of theater.

The LCS is reconfigured for various roles by changing mission packages, each of which includes mission module equipment weapon systems, sensors, etc.

A report from the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations OPNAV on a January sustainment wargame reportedly stated that, possibly for logistics reasons, the mission module changes may take as long as weeks, and that in the future the navy plans to use LCS ships with a single module, with module changes being a rare occurrence.

In an 8 September announcement, the Navy revealed a radical change in operations and organization plans for the LCS. Of the 28 Flight 0 ships built or on order, the first four, two of each class, will be turned into training ships and the remaining 24 will be divided into six divisions of four ships each; three divisions of the Freedom class based at Naval Station Mayport , Florida and three divisions of the Independence class based at Naval Station San Diego , California.

The new organization does away with the LCS' signature interchangeable mission module concept, with each division being tasked to fulfill one of the three mission sets.

In January , the U. Initial deployment of the Griffin was set for , a longer-ranged version was enter service around ; however, procurement was canceled after being judged to be "too lightweight".

Army's existing stockpile of 10, missiles. The Hellfire is an interim decision, the Navy is interested in developing a longer-range version.

The LCS' modular design makes it possible to add weapons and sensors as part of the warfare suite. This could mitigate lethality criticism of the LCS, which is oriented toward asymmetric swarm boat threats rather than comparable surface combatants.

In September , the Navy issued a directive to install an OTH missile on Freedom and Coronado for their next deployments in early and mid The exact missile was not specified, but sources say it will be both the Harpoon and NSM, each ship equipped with only one model of missile.

The directive calls for up to eight missiles, likely in two quad packs, to be installed on box launchers as a standalone system without requiring full integration into the LCS combat system.

The anti-submarine module had its focus changed from stationary to en-stride systems while the ship is moving that are useful in the open ocean as well as in coastal areas.

Navy to be towed behind the LCS, with a potential order of 25 units. The Thales towed sonar will give the LCS an ability to detect diesel-electric submarines while on the move, even better than destroyers and cruisers; because submarines can hide based on how sound is refracted through the temperature, salinity and pressure profile, the variable depth sonar can pierce that layer better than a hull-mounted sonar.

The sonar is paired with a torpedo decoy under development. A wargame held by the Naval War College demonstrated the possibility of using the LCS in open water operations to assist carrier battle groups and guided missile destroyers.

The LCS was found to be more useful in open water operations than previously considered. The wargame found that an LCS operating the ASW package could perform the mission, which freed up a destroyer that would normally perform the mission to contribute to the lethality of the strike group.

Submarine hunting ability is increased by the combination of a destroyer's towed array and hull-mounted sonar and an LCS' variable depth sonar.

In July , the Navy awarded three contracts to reduce the weight of the package elements down to or below metric tons total to meet mission package weight requirements.

Since both elements are mature and fielded the VDS on Royal Navy Type 23 frigates and MFTA on Arleigh Burke and Zumwalt -class destroyers , the systems cannot be overhauled and other weight reduction ideas need to be implemented like lightening sensors and using composites in the handling system.

The ASW elements were chosen as cost-effective COTS sensors, so weight reduction needs by between percent have been planned for since their selection for integration onto the LCS.

The Mine Counter-Measure MCM module is designed to provide minesweeping, remotely detecting and bypassing mines, as well as minehunting, detecting and then disabling.

It was envisioned to perform "influence" minehunting via acoustic and magnetic signatures rather than contact or mechanical minehunting.

The first increment of the MCM module included three systems: To destroy mines, the AMNS is lowered by the helicopter and guided by an operator on board to neutralize it.

Increment three will involve adding the Fleet-class unmanned surface vessel USV with the unmanned surface sweep system USSS , a cable towed behind the boat.

It will mimic the acoustic and magnetic signature of a ship to fool magnetic and influence mines into detonating; introduction is expected in The final increment will be the Knifefish unmanned underwater vehicle UUV to find and detect buried mines in If the Knifefish UUV can have its endurance increased, the vessel will take over the mission from both systems.

The Navy included an irregular warfare package in its budget request to Congress. The Independence -class LCS' features of high speed, a large flight deck to support UH-1Y Venom and AH-1W Super Cobra helicopters, and reconfigurable mission bay can support air and small-boat employment and delivery of ground and air forces; a small Marine ground unit can be carried within an embarked mission module.

In , the U. Coast Guard began advocating the LCS as a tailor-made platform for drug interdiction missions.

Under pressure from Navy vessels retiring, the Coast Guard will suffer a surface vessel shortage for intercepting smuggling ships in the Caribbean area, forcing the Navy to examine other platforms for drug interdiction.

The Coast Guard noted that the LCS has previously performed this task, and pointed towards its high speed and embarked helicopters to run down smuggling fast boats; the Navy plans to base 10 Freedom -class ships at Naval Station Mayport, Florida which could be tasked to conduct interdiction missions.

During the late s, the U. Navy realized its Cold War -era cruisers and destroyers would be vulnerable in shallow coastal waters, where the next naval battlespace was anticipated.

Designed for open-ocean warfare, they faced dangers from high-speed boats, missile-firing fast-attack craft, small submarines, sea mines, and land and air-launched anti-ship missiles.

The Navy's official solution was the DD , a large coastal warship that could absorb hits. Being small, light and numerous, the Streetfighter was envisioned as a "single-serving" ship to be abandoned once hit, made possible by its low cost.

The concept of a manned expendable warship was contentious and the idea was not picked up. When Donald Rumsfeld was made Secretary of Defense in early , he promised transformational approaches and doing jobs with fewer people.

In October , Cebrowski was assigned to head the Pentagon's new Office of Force Transformation, shortly after which Admiral Vernon Clark cancelled the DD and replaced it with a "family" of ships, including the littoral combat ship, being motivated to produce ships cheaper and faster to increase fleet size.

Clark declared the LCS was his "most transformational effort" and number-one budget priority in Proponents typically pointed to its speed, asymmetric littoral threats, and impact on the American shipbuilding industry.

The LCS suffered from requirements creep, adding more missions and equipment, potentially rendering it too complex and expensive to use.

When it was decided the ship would not be expendable, the original concept of a small, cheap, simple coastal warship became bigger, more expensive, and more complicated; with a smaller crew due to automation.

The task force assigned six different missions which had been previously performed by individual ships: The Navy was only willing to build one type of ship, the task force, realized it was virtually impossible for one vessel to fill all roles, advocated a large hull to cover the mission range through modularity, organic combat power, and unmanned systems.

When the first production contracts were awarded in , no mission module worked outside of a laboratory. Fast, cheap construction was emphasized, solving problems with technology.

Navy released the LCS requirement. After these are brought into service, and experience gathered on the design's usability and efficiency, the future design for the class would be chosen Flight I.

The ultimate decision was to fund both designs as two variants of the class. LCS-2 was launched 30 April In April , the Navy announced its revised procurement plan that three ships be funded in the FY budget; officials also hinted that the Navy may not down-select to one design for further orders, pointing out complementary features of the two designs.

The Congress asked the Navy to study improvement programs on existing ships in place of the LCS program. In May , Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems released a study that showed seven LCS can more efficiently perform anti-piracy patrols in the Western Indian Ocean than a fleet of 20 conventional ships for a quarter of the cost.

The Government Accountability Office GAO found that deploying the first two ships will delay the overall program because these two ships were not available for testing and development so changes may have to be made in the second pair of ships during construction instead of in advance.

Navy responded that "Early deployment brought LCS operational issues to the forefront much sooner than under the original schedule, some of which would not have been learnt until two years on.

Work explained that cost overruns were partly due to the shipbuilders bidding to American Bureau of Shipping commercial standards, the Navy changed this to Level I survivability standards for greater crew survivability, although the ships were not expected to operate after being hit.

Navy Secretary Ray Mabus pointed out that new vessels traditionally start off costing more to operate due to difficulties with ships being built and tested simultaneously; GAO reports of new warships since the s support this claim.

As more littoral combat ships are built and enter service, Mabus said operational costs will decline to acceptable limits.

On 2 December , it was reported that the GAO was critical of the LCS's ability to complete a navy requirement of 30 consecutive days underway without a critical failure of one or more essential subsystems.

Michael Gilmore, the Pentagon's Director of Operational Test and Evaluation states that the current LCS fleet have a "have a near-zero chance" of meeting this requirement.

Instead of declaring a winner out of the two competing designs, the U. Navy in November asked the Congress to allow for the order of ten of each design.

In December , the Government Accountability Office identified some problems with the designs including extremely long crew training time, unrealistic maintenance plans, and the lack of comprehensive risk assessment.

The Navy would be forced to award the contract to only one team if it failed to secure Congressional approval. A day before the offer's expiration, both Lockheed Martin and Austal USA received Navy contracts for an additional ten ships of their designs; two ships of each design being built each year between and In May , Robert Work said that the two designs may each be best suited to different theaters, the LCS-1 design being better suited for the enclosed waters of the Middle East, while the LCS-2 design for the Pacific Ocean's open waters.

In order to increase commonality, the Navy will force both types to use the same combat system electronics.

The handoff from General Dynamics to Austal of management for the Independence class led to a month schedule slip as the company struggled with building the JHSV ships at the same facilities.

A report by Rear Admiral Samuel Perez, USN, found that the ships lacked the manpower and firepower to complete the missions required by regional combatant commanders.

The report found that the LCS is "ill-suited for combat operations against anything but" small, fast boats not armed with anti-ship missiles.

It also found that the excessive beam width of the trimaran Independence class ships may pose a "navigational challenge in narrow waterways and tight harbors".

As contract workers are required to be American, they must be flown out to any foreign ports visited by an LCS. In , Captain Kenneth Coleman, the U.

Navy's requirements officer for the program, identified the LCS as being especially vulnerable to tactical aircraft armed with standoff anti-ship missiles.

Copeman III is reported to be considering an upsized "Super" LCS, [] with space to install needed firepower, because he noted that the 57mm main gun was more suitable to a patrol boat than a frigate.

Hunt said the ships are designed in accordance with the Navy's survivability standards, and that the LCS would be used during the initial phase in the theatre and sense the environment before hostilities occur.

The Navy has said the LCS was designed to pull out of combat upon sustaining damage. Hunt added that the anti-submarine warfare ASW mission package would play an important role in protecting aircraft carriers and amphibious ships, and the mine countermeasures MCMs mission package would also provide necessary port security and waterway patrol capability following combat operations.

The first two vessels from each maker were found to be overweight and not meeting performance requirements for endurance or sprinting over 40 knots.

Navy leaders contend that the LCS' shallow draft is well suited for Pacific operations due to the many shallow-water ports, typically difficult for larger warships to access.

The GAO report recommended the Navy consider buying fewer ships of the type if its limitations prevent effective use in the Pacific theater.

On 24 February , Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel directed the Navy to submit alternative proposals for a new surface combatant comparable to a frigate that can operate in all regions under conflict conditions.

In response to Pentagon direction to halt LCS purchases at 32 ships, the Navy is re-examining the vessels' role, such as whether they have enough protection and firepower to survive against advanced adversaries, and alternate proposals which included a modified LCS or a new platform.

The Navy requires the class' roles of counter-mine, anti-submarine, and surface warfare provided by modules.

Proponents point out that the LCS was not designed to function like destroyers but for littoral tasks like high-speed patrols and counter-piracy missions, moving at 40 knots and within shallow water where other ships cannot.

Hagel was concerned by the LCS to make up one-sixth of the Navy's ship force. A new ship class would need built-in anti-submarine and surface warfare mission features, as opposed to swappable mission modules.

Greenert explained that the LCS meets or exceeds survivability and recoverability standards, was as survivable as a frigate, and was more survivable than mine countermeasures and patrol craft; susceptibility has to be improved upon, and he would consider modifications to increase survivability and flexibility.

The navy continued to look into improvements for the last 20 ships of the ship LCS procurement, that would increase the capabilities to that of a frigate.

It was reported that the navy was considering four different options as "leading contenders" for the role of this new frigate.

Another being the group of three Freedom -class variants of differing size, both shorter and longer than the current Freedom class.

The third was a once hinted at "international" version of the Independence class , that could be AEGIS -equipped, and lastly, an American-built version of the Spanish Navy 's Fclass frigate.

One RFI was for design concepts and information on cost and lethality, and the other was for specific systems and technologies.

Mission areas consisting of anti-air, surface warfare, anti-submarine warfare, and mine countermeasure missions will offer a range of mission and capability options based on the threat environment that will drive design work and costs.

Options for the proposed small surface combatant were a modified version of the LCS, an existing alternate ship design, or an entirely new design.

Austal USA submitted a modified Independence -class ship, adding permanently installed systems like a towed array sonar, torpedoes, vertical launch anti-submarine rockets, and aviation capability to support the MH helicopter in place of mission modules.

Huntington Ingalls submitted a larger, more heavily armed National Security Cutter. General Dynamics also made an unspecified response.

A decision is to be made by February in advance of the budget submission.

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Was ist lcs

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